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Sunday, October 7, 2012

medicines for travelling by air



Nothing turns a vacation into a pitty party faster than a bug of mild moderate or intense unpleasant variety, wheter it produces tummy upset, flu like symptoms or worse an illness drains precious hours from beach and sight seing time. but knowing the risks and exercising cation can go a long a way toward mazimizing holiday health travel especially by air travel, is exhausting. avoid caffeine, alcohol and heavy meals. when flying can minimize the effects of jet lag. another risk from those holidaying in tropical climates is the sun. though its common knowledge that UV rays damage skin, travellers may not realize how searing the tropical sun can be the index in popular vaction spots such as cuba and mexico ranges from 10 to 12 at the hottest times of year-"very high" to "extreme", accdg to the world health orga. skin can burn in minutes so be sure repeatedly slather on sunscreen minimum spf 15 limit direct sun exposure betwwen ten am to 4 pm. and make a relazed fashion statement with sunglasses and a floppy hat. stomach upsets and diarrhea are two other common travel health complaints. each year an estimated 10 million people come down with travellers diarrhea, accd to canadian center for disease control and prevention. a few common sense practices aid in prevention, purchase brand name bottled water ensuring the original seal is still in place, instead of drinking from the tap, and avoid beverages with ice cubes, raw shellfish, undercooked meat and already peeled fruits should be redflagged as well. take special care with foods purchased from teh street vendors and know that hot freshly cooked food is the safe bet. destination is a factor in such health hazards . the continental US, scandinavian, australian, and much europe boast canadian standards for drinking water, however anyone headed in mexico, southeast asia, south america, central america and africa or india should drop into a travel health clinic four weeks ahead of departure. there is always a risk of some usually mild and temporary health issue cropping up while one is on holiday but as one anonymously sage famously noted the rewards of journey far outweigh the risk of leaving the harbor.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

creep lyrics by radio head

CREEP



















lyrics by radio head
 When you were here before
Couldn't look you in the eye
You're just like an angel
Your skin makes me cry You float like a feather
 In a beautiful world I wish I was special
You're so fucking special
 But I'm a creep I'm a weirdo
What the hell am I doing here?
I don't belong here
 I don't care if it hurts
I want to have control
I want a perfect body I want a perfect soul
 I want you to notice
When I'm not around
You're so fucking special I wish I was special
 But I'm a creep I'm a weirdo
What the hell am I doing here? I don't belong here
 She's running out the door
She's running out, she run, run, run, run, run
 Whatever makes you happy
 Whatever you want You're so fucking special
 I wish I was special But I'm a creep I'm a weirdo
What the hell am I doing here?
 I don't belong here I don't belong here
---------------------------------
 BECOZ I LOVE YOU by stevie b

I got your letter,
 from the postman just the other day so I decided to write you this song.
Just to let you know, exactly the way I feel, to let you know my love's for real.
 Beacuse I love you, and I do anything I give you my heart, my everything
Because I love you, I'll be right by your side
 To be your light, to be your guide -
Power-
 If you should feel, that I don't really care
That you're started to loose ground.
Just let me reasoure you, that you can count on me
That I'll always be around. Because I love you, my heart's an open door
 Girl won't you please, come on in.
Because I love you, I'll be right by your side.
To be your light to be your guide.
 -Power- If you should feel, that I don't really care
That you're started to loose ground.
 Just let me reasoure you, that you can count on me
 That I'll always be around. 
Read more: http://artists.letssingit.com/mark-oh-lyrics-because-i-love-you-s3d8t4z#ixzz28RvL5eAk LetsSingIt - Your favorite Music Community

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

SAFETY /OSHA/BOSH training in RODECH,cebu
















SECTION THIRTEEN – HYDROGEN SULFIDE 13.0 General Hydrogen Sulfide, also know as H2S, is a highly toxic, colorless gas, that is slightly heavier than air. H2S has an unpleasant odor, detected at low concentrations, which is characteristic of rotten eggs. Due to the rapid onset of olfactory fatigue and paralysis, odor should not be used as the warning for the presence of H2S. H2S may collect in low-lying areas, tanks, cellars or confined spaces, displacing oxygen and increasing the amount of H2S. H2S is soluble in water based and oil based drilling fluids and will migrate as a gas out of the fluid while in tanks or pits. H2S will burn producing a blue flame. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), a very irritating gas with a pungent odor, is produced. SO2 is a colorless gas appreciably heavier than air. Although the most obvious source of H2S on a drilling site is from the well bore or oil storage tanks, other sources where H2S can occur may be: • When sludge in the bottom of water tanks is disturbed. Such tanks can include drill water tanks, pre-load tanks, or other water tanks where sludge can build up. • When mud solids are cleaned from a drill mud tank. Each company with operations where hydrogen sulfide could be encountered should establish an H2S contingency plan. The company should obtain or develop an H2S manual and follow appropriate regulations that include at least the following: A. Physical effects of H2S, B. Pre-well planning, C. Precautionary measures, D. Emergency measures, E. Breathing apparatus, F. Problems in respirator use, G. First aid for hydrogen sulfide, and H. Detecting and monitoring H2S. 13.1 Initiation of H2S Procedures In some areas, H2S is a severe hazard, due to the serious effect exposure to even small concentrations can have. When exposed to H2S, the nasal organs can be temporarily deadened to the extent that additional exposure is not realized. Due to this false sense of security, test any areas known or suspected to have H2S to ensure the area is safe. Where applicable, rigs are equipped with H2S detectors. After testing the well for H2S, log the concentration on the tour report. If the concentration exceeds 10 ppm, cease operations until the well is killed with water or ammonia. Bring explosion-proof fans and respiratory protection to the well site if the concentration cannot be kept below 20 ppm. The maximum safe working level for an eight-hour day is 10 ppm (average).
NOTE: Take care to monitor for H2S gas when working on a back-flowing water injection well or during an acidizing operation. Drilling operations encountering hydrogen sulfide (H2S) should be aware of the special materials, equipment, and personnel protection equipment required. Safety procedures should be initiated and training completed in advance of penetrating the shallowest zone suspected to contain hydrogen sulfide. If hydrogen sulfide conditions are unexpectedly encountered, precautions should be implemented as soon as possible. 13.2 Applicability In oil and gas well drilling operations, severity of the environment shall be assessed. As a minimum, the following measures shall be implemented: A. Personnel protection equipment and training should be provided if the work area concentration of hydrogen sulfide exceeds 10 ppm as an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) or 15 ppm as a short-term exposure level (STEL) averaged over 15 minutes; or the work area concentration of sulfur dioxide exceeds 2 ppm as an 8-hour TWA or 5 ppm as an STEL averaged over 15 minutes. B. Detection equipment should be provided if/when the action levels for H2S or SO2 are exceeded. C. Equipment and materials shall be selected on the basis of resistance to sulfide stress cracking and corrosion.
13.3 Training Training should be initiated and completed in advance of penetrating the shallowest zone suspected to contain H2S. Hydrogen Sulfide Safety instructors are persons who have successfully completed a course in hydrogen sulfide instructor training or have received equivalent instruction from a company-designated hydrogen sulfide safety instructor/trainer. Training should include: A. H2S and SO2 safe workplace practices (use the buddy system) B. Hazards, characteristics and properties of H2S and SO2. C. Dangers of H2S and SO2. D. Signs and symptoms of H2S and SO2 exposure. E. Sources of H2S and SO2. F. First aid for H2S and SO2. G. Locations and use of respiratory and other safety equipment. H. Locations of safe briefing areas. I. Use of Detection equipment. J. Types of and location of alarms. K. General safety precautions for H2S. L. Dangers of Confined space and enclosed facility entry procedures (if applicable). M. H2S and SO2 Emergency Drills. N. Wind direction awareness and routes of egress. O. Rescue techniques and first aid to victims of H2S and SO2. 13.4 Rescue/First Aid Procedures – Hydrogen Sulfide The following are the rescue/first aid procedures for hydrogen sulfide: A. Buddy system should be used when attempting rescue operations. B. Put on rescue breathing apparatus before attempting a rescue. You, too, can be overcome by H2S. C. Remove the person immediately to fresh air. Have someone call an ambulance. D. If the person is not breathing, start artificial respiration immediately. E. If the person’s heart has stopped, begin Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) immediately. F. Keep the person warm. G. Once a person is removed to fresh air and normal respiration is restored, keep the person under medical observation until released by a doctor. 13.5 Detection An adequate number of fixed, portable or both types of detectors should be provided for the safety of personnel working. There should be a clear understanding of alarms and responsibilities when the alarm sounds. Fixed hydrogen sulfide atmospheric monitoring systems should include visual and audible alarm(s), located where the alarm can be seen or heard throughout the work area. Detection equipment should be calibrated and serviced per manufactures recommendations. The following are H2S detection methods: A. There are several ways you can be alerted to the presence of H2S gas. The scent is usually the first and, unfortunately, sometimes the last indicator. You can smell as little as one part of H2S per million parts of air. However, if the concentration of gas is in the 100 to 150 ppm range, the sense of smell is quickly lost, giving a false sense of security. B. When testing for H2S gas, be prepared for deadly concentrations. C. To determine the amount of H2S present in your work area, use one of the following means of detection: 1. Lead acetate ampoules or coated strips: These change color (usually turn brown or black) in the presence of H2S. The degree of color indicates the concentration. These are not completely accurate and should be used only as an indicator for the presence of H2S. 2. Electronic Detectors: This type of personal device is belt-mounted or hand-held and gives audible alarms (and in some cases a read-out) upon exposure to a predetermined level of H2S. 3. Air-Sampling Gas Detector Tubes: The concentration of H2S is registered by the length of discoloration when air is drawn through the detector tube. There are several reliable makes and types available, but their accuracy depends on the training and practice of the operator. Tubes must be certified by NIOSH or other equivalent certifying agency. 4. Fixed Systems: In larger plants and fields, a fixed system of continuous monitoring is often used. Where these units monitor an area continuously, an alarm system will give warning when the H2S concentration gets above a certain fixed limit. 5. Sensors should be located at the following locations as appropriate: • Bell nipple • Mud-return line receiver tank (possum belly) and/or shale shaker • Pipe-trip tank • Well-control fluid pit area • Driller’s/operator’s station • Living quarters, if located in close proximity to the well • All other areas where hydrogen sulfide may accumulate that are not part of the confined-space entry program 13.6 Properties of H2S The following are properties of H2S: A. Color – Colorless. B. Odor – In low concentrations, it can be very offensive and is commonly referred to smelling like “rotten eggs.” In high concentrations, it is odorless. C. Vapor density - H2S is heavier than air. It will settle in low areas such as cellars, tanks, etc. D. Boiling point – 76oF (-60.2o C). E. Explosive limits – 4.3 to 46 percent by volume, in air. F. Auto Ignition temperature – 500oF (260o C). G. Water-soluble – Yes (4 volumes gas in 1 volume water at 32oF (0o C). H. Flammability – Forms explosive mixture with air. 13.7 H2S Exposure Limits Where H2S is present, the following limits of exposure should apply. (Certain local or federal regulations may have different standards.) A. Ceiling value = 10 PPM B. Time weighted average (TWA) = 10 PPM C. Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8 – hour shift is 15 PPM (10 minutes, once only, if no other measurable exposure occurs.)
13.8 Toxicity of H2S The toxicity of H2S is defined below: A. 1 ppm = .0001% (1/10,000 of 1%) – Can smell (rotten egg odor), no risk. B. 10 ppm = .001% (1/1000 of 1%) – Allowable for 8 hours exposure over the allowable concentration, protective equipment will be necessary. Beginning or slight eye irritation. C. 100 ppm = .01% (1/100 of 1%) – Kills smell in 3 to 5 minutes. May burn eyes and throat. Coughing, eye irritation, within 2 - 15 minutes. Altered respiration, pain in the eyes and drowsiness after 15-30 minutes followed by throat irritation after 1 hour. Several hours exposure results in gradual increase in severity of these symptoms and death may occur within the next 48 hours. D. 500 ppm = .05% (5/100 of 1%) – Lose sense of reasoning and balance. Loss of consciousness and possibly death in 30 minutes to 1 hour. Respiratory disturbances occur in 2 to 15 minutes. Need prompt artificial respiration. E. 700 ppm = .07% (7/100 of 1%) – Will become unconscious quickly. Breathing stops and death results if not rescued promptly. Need immediate artificial resuscitation. F. 1000 ppm = .10% (1/10 of 1%) – Unconscious at once. Permanent brain damage may result unless rescued promptly and resuscitation is administered immediately. NOTE: ppm = parts of gas per million parts of air by volume. 1% = 10,000 ppm. 13.9 Breathing Equipment (SCBA) A. Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) should be selected based on the usage of the unit. For example, 30 minute SCBA rescue unit, 5 minute escape pack, and cascade work units. B

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